Rozumienie main.cpp

Zrozumienie głównego pliku naszego kodu silnika

Rola main.cpp

Podczas gdy QML używa się do front-endu aplikacji Kirigami, to backend zazwyczaj jest napisany w C++ dzięki szybkości i elastyczności tego języka. W poprzednich rozdziałach wyjaśnialiśmy szczegóły QML, a teraz będziemy musieli zrozumieć kod w C++ naszego backendu, aby uczynić nasze aplikacje bardziej użytecznymi, poza to co można osiągną przy użyciu czystego QML.

Here, we'll be going over the main.cpp file we created in the Getting Started page so that we can better understand what is going on in the central C++ file of our application. While this is a basic main.cpp, the features we will go over will remain essential no matter what kind of application you decide to create.

Co to robi

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#include <QApplication>
#include <QQmlApplicationEngine>
#include <QtQml>
#include <QUrl>
#include <QQuickStyle>
#include <KLocalizedContext>
#include <KLocalizedString>

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    QApplication app(argc, argv);
    KLocalizedString::setApplicationDomain("tutorial");
    QApplication::setOrganizationName(QStringLiteral("KDE"));
    QApplication::setOrganizationDomain(QStringLiteral("kde.org"));
    QApplication::setApplicationName(QStringLiteral("Kirigami Tutorial"));
    QApplication::setDesktopFileName(QStringLiteral("org.kde.tutorial"));

    if (qEnvironmentVariableIsEmpty("QT_QUICK_CONTROLS_STYLE")) {
        QQuickStyle::setStyle(QStringLiteral("org.kde.desktop"));
    }

    QQmlApplicationEngine engine;

    engine.rootContext()->setContextObject(new KLocalizedContext(&engine));
    engine.loadFromModule("org.kde.tutorial", "Main");

    if (engine.rootObjects().isEmpty()) {
        return -1;
    }

    return app.exec();
}

First we must include a number of Qt header files, allowing us to use their functions. In this case, we include a number of Qt headers that handle application logic, and to allow us to read QML files.

We then create a QApplication instance which we call app. Passing argc and argv to the constructor is required for the call.

We also set some metadata relating to the application. These include the organisation that created the application, the organisation's website, and the name of the application. We set these properties by calling QApplication , instantiating an object that comes from QCoreApplication and provides the event loop for applications regardless of whether they have a GUI or not (so if we ran our program without the GUI, this metadata would still be set).

To make our app look native on non-Plasma environments such as Windows or GNOME, we use QQuickStyle::setStyle() to make use of qqc2-desktop-style, forcing the use of Breeze.

The QQmlApplicationEngine lets us load an application from a QML file, which we do in the next line. In engine.loadFromModule("org.kde.tutorial", "Main"); we load our QML from the URI import defined in CMake.

Next, we check if our engine correctly loaded the QML file by checking that the engine's rootObjects() list is not empty. We can then run our application with app.exec() .